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HINDU SAMSKARAS

SOURCES OF ENQUIRY MEANING &   NUMBER OF SAMSKARAS
PURPOSE OF THE SAMSKARAS CONSTITUENTS OF THE SAMSKARAS
PRE - NATAL SAMSKARAS SAMSKARAS OF CHILDHOOD
EDUCATIONAL SAMSKARAS VIVAHA (MARRIAGE CEREMONIES)
ANTYESTI SAMSKARA (FUNERAL CEREMONIES) CONCLUSION

Contents

CH. 1 THE SOURCES OF ENQUIRY

INTRODUCTORY VEDAS BRAHMANAS
ARANYAKAS AND UPANISADS RITUAL LITERATURE PROPER: GRHYASUTRAS DHARMASUTRAS
SMRITIS EPICS PURANAS
COMMENTARIES MEDIAEVAL TREATISES CUSTOMS
INDO - IRANIAN, INDO - EUROPEAN, AND SEMITIC SOURCES RELATIVE IMPORTANCE OF SOURCES  

CH. 2 THE MEANING & THE NUMBER OF THE SAMSKARAS

MEANING OF THE WORD 'SAMSKARA' EXTENT AND NUMBER : THE GRHYASUTRAS, THE DHARMASUTRAS, THE SMRTIS, TREATISES, THE PADDHATIS AND THE PRAYOGAS SIXTEEN SAMSKARAS

CH.3 THE PURPOSE OF THE SAMSKARAS

INTRODUCTORY TWO - FOLD PURPOSE POPULAR PURPOSE: REMOVAL OF HOSTILE INFLUENCES, THE ATTRACTION OF FAVOURABLE INFLUENCES, THE MATERIAL AIM OF THE SAMSKARAS, SAMSKARAS AS SELF - EXPRESSION.
CULTURAL PURPOSE MORAL PURPOSE FORMATION AND DEVELOPMENT OF PERSONALITY
SPIRITUAL SIGNIFICANCE DIFFERENT STAGES  

CH. 4 THE CONSTITUENTS OF THE SAMSKARAS

INTRODUCTORY FIRE PRAYERS, APPEALS, AND BLESSINGS
SACRIFICE LUSTRATION ORIENTATION
SYMBOLISM TABOOS MAGIC
DIVINATION CULTURAL ELEMENTS COMMON SENSE ELEMENTS
A SPIRITUAL ATMOSPHERE

CH. 5 THE PRE - NATAL SAMSKARAS

GARBHADHANA : MEANING, VEDIC PERIOD, SUTRA PERIOD, DHARMASUTRA  SMRTI AND SUBSEQUENT PERIODS, TIME OF PERFORMANCE, A POLYGAMOUS HOUSEHOLDER, PERFORMER, WHETHER A GARBHA OR A KSETRA SAMSKARA, A SACRED AND COMPULSORY DUTY, EXCEPTIONS, SIGNIFICANCE PUMSAVANA (QUICKENING OF MALE CHILD) : MEANING OF THE TERM, VEDIC PERIOD, SUTRA PERIOD, LATER RULES AND CONSIDERATIONS, PROPER TIME, WHETHER PERFORMED IN EVERY PREGNANCY, RITUAL AND ITS SIGNIFICANCE. SIMANTONNAYANA (HAIR PARTING) : DEFINITION OF THE TERM, PURPOSE, EARLY HISTORY, TIME OF PERFORMANCE, OBJECT OF PURIFICATION, CEREMONIES,  DUTIES OF A PREGNANT WOMAN, DUTIES OF THE HUSBAND, MEDIAL BASIS

CH. 6 THE SAMSKARAS OF CHILDHOOD

JATAKARMA (BIRTH CEREMONY) : ORIGIN, HISTORY, PRELIMINARY PRECAUTIONS, TIME OF PERFORMANCE, CEREMONIES AND THEIR SIGNIFICANCE ( Medh janana, Ayusya, Strength ) NAMAKARANA (NAME GIVING) : IMPORTANCE OF NAMING, ORIGIN, VEDIC PERIOD, SUTRA AND LATER PERIODS (COMPOSITION OF THE NAME, NAMING A GIRL, STATUS A DETERMINING FACTOR, FOURFOLD NAMING { NAKSATRA NAME, NAME AFTER MONTH DEITY, NAME AFTER FAMILY DEITY, POPULAR NAME, REPULSIVE NAME }, CEREMONIES AND THEIR SIGNIFICANCE) NISKRAMANA (FIRST OUTING) : ORIGIN, HISTORY, TIME OF PERFORMANCE, PERFORMER, CEREMONIES AND THEIR SIGNIFICANCE
ANNA PRASANA (FIRST FEEDING) : ORIGIN, HISTORY, TIME OF PERFORMANCE, DIFFERENT KINDS OF FOOD, RITUAL AND ITS SIGNIFICANCE CHUDAKARANA (TONSURE) : ORIGIN, PURPOSE OF THE SMASKARA, VEDIC PERIOD, SUTRA AND SUBSEQUENT PERIODS, AGE, TIME OF PERFORMANCE, CHOICE OF THE PLACE, ARRANGEMENT OF THE TOP HAIR, CEREMONIES, MAIN FEATURES OF THE CEREMONIES, ASSOCIATION OF TOP HAIR WITH LONG LIFE KARNAVEDHA (BORING THE EARS) : ORIGIN AND EARLY HISTORY, AGE AND TIME OF PERFORMANCE, PERFORMER, TYPES OF NEEDLE, COMPULSORY CEREMONY, CEREMONIES, SUSRUTA ON THE BORING OF EARS, LATER PHASES

CH. 7 THE EDUCATIONAL SAMSKARAS

VIDYARAMBHA (LEARNING OF ALPHABETS) : NAMES MEANINGS AND PURPOSE OF THE SMASKARA, SOURCES OF INFORMATION, LATER ORIGIN AND ITS CAUSE, AGE, CEREMONIES UPANAYANA (INITIATION) : ORIGIN, FORMS OF INITIATION, HINDU INITIATION, ANTIQUITY OF THE UPANAYANA, VEDIC PERIOD, SUTRA AND LATER PERIODS, MEANING OF THE TERM UPANAYANA, PURPOSE OF THE SAMSKARAS, AGE, VRATYA, UPANAYANA NOT COMPULSORY IN THE BEGINNING, UPANAYANA BECOMES COMPULSORY, RIDICULOUS CONSEQUENCES OF COMPULSION, UPANAYANA PARTLY NEGLECTED DURING THE MEDIAEVAL PERIOD, WHO TOOK THE CHILD TO THE TEACHER, SELECTION OF THE TEACHER, CEREMONIES AND THEIR SIGNIFICANCE ( TIME, PREPARATIONS, JOINT MEAL, BATH, KAUPINA, GIRDLE, SACRED THREAD, AJINA, STAFF, SYMBOLICAL PERFORMANCES, TOUCHING THE HEART, MOUNTING THE STONE, TAKING THE CHARGE, COMMANDMENTS, SAVITRI MANTRA, SACRED FIRE, ROUNDS FOR ALMS, LATE FEATURES, TRI-RATRA-VRATA, DAWN OF A NEW ERA) VEDARAMBHA (BEGINNING OF THE VEDIC STUDY) : INTRODUCTORY, ORIGIN, A NEW SAMSKARA, CEREMONIES
KESANTA (SHAVING OF BEARD) : DIFFERENT NAMES AND THEIR SIGNIFICANCE, ORIGIN AND EARLY HISTORY, LATER HISTORY AND CONFUSION, CEREMONIES SAMAVARTANA OR SNANA (THE END OF STUDENTSHIP) : INTRODUCTORY, IMPORTANCE, NORMAL COURSE, THREE TYPES OF SNATAKA, A PASSPORT TO MARRIAGE, AGE, PERMISSION OF THE TEACHER, CEREMONIES AND THEIR SIGNIFICANCE, RESPECT PAID TO THE SNATAKA, AN ABSURD SIMPLIFICATION  

CH. 8 THE VIVAHA (MARRIAGE CEREMONIES)

IMPORTANCE OF MARRIAGE ORIGIN PRE - MARITAL STAGE
MARRIAGE PROPER FORMS OF MARRIAGE HISTORICAL GROWTH OF EIGHT FORMS : PISACHA, RAKSASA, GANDHARVA, ASURA, PRAJAPATYA, ARSA, DAIVA, BRAHMA, SOME OTHER FORMS, POPULAR FORMS
RELIGIOUS CEREMONIES ESSENTIAL LIMITATIONS OF MARRIAGE : EXOGAMY, ENDOGAMY, HYPERGAMY, PRATILOMA,   LATER HISTORY OF INTER CASTE MARRIAGE, INTER CASTE MARRIAGE FORBIDDEN, EXAMINATION OF THE FAMILY MARRIAGEABLE AGE
QUALIFICATIONS OF THE BRIDE QUALIFICATIONS OF THE BRIDEGROOM THE CEREMONIES ORIGINAL SIMPLICITY, GRADUAL COMPLEXITY, VEDIC PERIOD, SUTRA PERIOD, LATER INNOVATIONS, PRESENT FORM, DESCRIPTION AND SIGNIFICANCE (BETROTHAL, MARRIAGE DAY, MRDAHARANA, WORSHIP OF GANESA, GHATIKA, NUPTIAL BATH, MARRIAGE PARTY, MADHUPARKA, BRIDEGROOM HONOURED, PRESENTATION OF A GARMENT TO THE BRIDE, ANOINTMENT, GOTROCHARA, KANYADANA, CONDITION, SIGNIFICANT QUESTION, PROTECTION CORD, EVOLUTION OF THE BRIDE SUGGESTED, RASTRABHRTA AND OTHER SACRIFICES, PANIGRAHANA, MOUNTING THE STONE, PRAISE OF WOMAN, AGNI PRADAKSINA, SAPTA PADI, BRIDE SPRINKLED, TOUCHING HEART, BRIDE BLESSED, SITTING ON BULL'S HIDE, LOCAL CUSTOMS, NUPTIAL FEES, LOOKING AT THE SUN AND THE POLE STAR, TRIRATRA VRATA, BRIDE CARRIED AND BLESSED, DOMESTIC FIRE ESTABLISHED CHATURTHIKARMA, COMMON MEAL, REMOVAL OF THE NUPTIAL CANOPY )
SYMBOLISM OF HINDU NUPTIALS : MEANING OF A SYMBOL, SACRAMENTAL MARRIAGE AND SYMBOL, MARRIAGE A UNION OF THE FITTEST COUPLE, MARRIAGE A NEW BOND, MARRIAGE A PERMANENT AND STABLE UNION, BIOLOGICAL SYMBOLISM OF MARRIAGE, MARRIAGE SHOULD BE FRUITFUL AND PROSPEROUS, MARRIAGE A CRISIS, MARRIAGE NOT A LICENSE, MARRIAGE A SOCIAL CHANGE AND A SACRIFICE

CH. 9 THE ANTYESTI SAMSKARA (FUNERAL CEREMONIES)

INTRODUCTORY ORIGIN : THE HORROR OF DEATH, THE CONCEPTION OF THE SOUL AFTER DEATH, THE MIXED FEELINGS OF DREAD AND LOVE, PHYSICAL NEEDS DIFFERENT KINDS OF DISPOSAL
FUNERALS : VEDIC PERIOD, SUTRA PERIOD, LATER ADDITIONS AND OMISSIONS APPROACH OF DEATH PRE - DISPOSAL CEREMONIES
BIER REMOVAL OF THE CORPSE FUNERAL PROCESSION
ANUSTARANI CREMATION LYING OF THE WIDOW ON THE FUNERAL PYRE
CREMATION A SACRIFICE RETURN OFFERING OF WATER
REGALING THE MOURNERS IMPURITY ASTHI - SANCHAYANA
SANTI KARMA SMSANA OFFERINGS TO THE DEAD
SAPINDI KARANA SPECIAL CASES PRIMITIVE NATURE OF THE CEREMONIES

CH. 10 CONCLUSION

LIFE A MYSTERY AND AN ART LIFE A CYCLE DOGMA A CONSCIOUS DEVELOPMENT
PROCEDURE OF THE SAMSKARAS PLACE OF THE SAMSKARAS IN HINDUISM : SAMSKARAS TOOK LIFE AS A WHOLE, SAMSKARAS AND THE THREE PATHS OF LIFE, PHILOSOPHICAL INDIFFERENCE AND HOSTILITY TOWARDS THE SAMSKARAS AND THEIR RECONCILIATION WITH PHILOSOPHY, SAMSKARAS AND PURANIC HINDUISM ACHIEVEMENTS OF THE SAMSKARAS
DECLINE OF THE SAMSKARAS REVIVALISM AND THE SAMSKARAS PROSPECTS

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